Coexisting With Coyotes
Eastern coyote sightings are not uncommon throughout Ontario and across North America. This resilient species has been a vital part of our ecosystem for over a century.
By applying common sense, preventative techniques, and by being aware of the diversity of wildlife with which we share our communities, we can minimize human and wildlife encounters and conflict. Coyote sightings often increase as a result of humans intentionally or unintentionally providing a food source and people conclude they are seeing multiple coyotes when, in fact, the same coyote is making numerous visits to the same area where it has found a consistent food source.
Overflowing bird feeders, mishandled compost, and fallen fruit attract a diverse range of prey species such as rodents, squirrels, chipmunks, and insects, which coyotes will utilize as food. Consider that the birds and small mammals that frequent bird feeder stations are potential prey food for other predator species such as owls, hawks, fox, and domestic pets. New infrastructure such as roads, fences, and urbanization impacts how wildlife moves throughout our communities. Urban boundary expansion creates a loss of habitat and green spaces for wildlife. Coyotes and other wildlife species must adjust to their ever-changing world and may be forced to establish new territories to hunt and forage for sustenance; dens are destroyed through development activities and the resilient coyote responds to these environmental impacts.
Seasonal behaviour that influences an increase in coyote sightings
Winter during mating periods (Jan-Feb), Spring during den selection/pup rearing (Mar-July), and Fall-Winter during the dispersal of family members will also affect the number of times a resident observes the same or a different coyote. Each canid individual and/or family responds uniquely to seasonal milestones. Dispersal may occur throughout a young coyote's life while remaining in the home range.
By promoting respect, compassion, and safety education throughout our community about these intelligent, adaptable keystone species, we can safely coexist with coyotes. Coyote Vocalizations are a coyote’s specialized means of communicating danger, locating pack members, defending territory, and survival skills for pups. Vocalizing acts as an effective 'canid GPS'. Their series of high-pitched yips, barks, and howls can be heard more frequently during certain times of the year. A pair of coyotes often sounds like a chorus to the inexperienced listener. This phenomenon is called the 'beau geste effect'. The coyote vocalization example was generously provided by Harry Foster who resides on the Ottawa River in Ontario.
Coyote family quick facts
- Coyotes are capable of breeding within the first year.
- Gestation for the female is 62-63 days.
- In an established home-range territory, the adult mated pair may have litters of between two and 10 pups; the average litter size is five pups.
- Adult coyotes secure and defend their territory by frequently moving throughout their habitat.
- Vocalizing, and leaving olfactory markers in the landscape such as scat, urine, and scent, along with soil scratching communicates to non-related coyotes, the land is not vacant.
- Coyotes co-parent and share in the pup rearing duties. It is not uncommon for older siblings from previous litters, aunts, or uncles to help with this task.
- Pups need their parents to teach them all of the appropriate survival skills and nurture them as they grow to become “coyote intelligent”.
- Pups, their parents, and relatives join in chorus to vocalize teaching the young effective communication techniques building family bonds.
- Coyote and fox parents are protective and caring and will not tolerate threats to their young such as a domestic dog off-leash.
- Spring and summer to early fall are busy seasonal milestones for all wildlife families and in particular for canids.
- As pups become more independent, both parents may venture off to hunt and forage leaving the pups behind at the den area or at safe and secure rendezvous sites. Parents will bring food items and toys back for the pups. Please reconsider removing pups from wild spaces as you may very well be tearing a family apart. Contact Coyote Watch Canada and/or your local rehabilitation expert for advice.
- Use common sense, respect wildlife, wildlife-proof properties and report any feeding of coyotes, wolves, or foxes to your local City By-Law.
For example, Niagara Falls, Ontario residents must adhere to important By-Laws for the City of Niagara Falls including the Anti Wildlife Feeding By-Law and the licensing and regulating of dogs that are in place.
Helpful coexistence tips
- Never feed wildlife. Our best approach for safe and harmonious coexistence is to avoid conditioning them with food. We need to ensure our inappropriate actions do not negatively influence their natural instincts and wariness towards humans. This is the best way to promote a safe and healthy community for people, pets, and wildlife. The few documented cases of coyote-inflicted wounds on humans occurred as a result of humans encouraging close proximity by feeding a coyote.
- Keep pet food and water bowls indoors. Pet food will attract coyotes to your yard.
- Partner with local TNSR (Trap Neuter Spay Return) and Adoption organizations that promote feed/remove and home placement programs for feral cats.
- Keep trash cans covered and use wildlife-proof lids.
- Pick ripened fruit, and clean all rotted fallen fruit from the ground.
- Do not allow a large amount of wild bird seed to remain on your lawn. Birdseed attracts birds, rabbits, squirrels, and rodents, which are prey for coyotes.
- Supervise your pets and keep them under strict control. Adhering to leash by-laws, accompanying pets on walks, and not allowing them to roam are in the best interests of your pets. Our pets are at risk of many environmental dangers when they are not under our control: other dogs, birds of prey such as owls, eagles, hawks, foxes, and coyotes can all prey on smaller pets. Cats are safest indoors or in secure outdoor play enclosures. Domestic dogs can be considered competition for food items at locations where humans are feeding coyotes, and coyotes may prey on small domestic animals for food or to eliminate a threat to their territory or pups.
- Keep chickens, rabbits and other small animals in covered enclosures, constructed with heavy mesh wire. Domestic dogs, coyotes, raccoons, and weasels can break through chicken coop wire.
- Neuter your pets. Although a rare occurrence, domesticated dogs may attempt to mate with a coyote.
- Do not approach coyotes, their dens, or their pups, even if it appears the parents are not in the vicinity. Coyotes will do their best to avoid humans but may interact with humans when provoked (during risky human behaviour such as feeding, interfering with pups or harassing) sick, or injured.
- Teach children about wildlife and how to safely respond to a coyote (or dog) nearby.
- Respect, compassion, and education are common-sense tools that nurture safe and healthy human and wildlife families.
What can I do if a coyote frequently visits my backyard?
1) Use our National Sighting Platform: Report sightings on the City of Niagara Falls website.
2) Check your property for wildlife attractants. Check out our Wildlife Proofing Quick Tips for help!
3) For Niagara Falls, Ontario residents you may report any known feeding of wildlife to the City of Niagara Falls.
Share our informative and educational community resource Coexisting with Wildlife with a neighbour, family, or friend! This helps in promoting facts not fear-based misconceptions and myths about canids in our midst.
Human indifference is not an appropriate response to a coyote, fox, or wolf getting comfortable around areas that people frequent. Never allow a coyote to linger or bed down near your home or business. Print and follow our Wildlife Proofing Quick Tips.
Applying simple low-intensity hazing techniques will send a clear message to a coyote that they are not welcomed.
Yelling in a firm voice while outdoors “Go away coyote!”, banging pots, spraying a water hose (in warmer months), throwing objects towards not at the coyote, using a shake can, popping open an umbrella can be effective deterrents to safely move a coyote away.
Battery-operated flashlights, tape-recorded human noises, and ammonia-soaked rags may deter coyotes from entering your property.
If a coyote or fox is near
- Pick up small children and pets
- Never run from or turn your back on a coyote/fox/wolf/domestic dog
- Wave your arm(s) above your head, stomp feet, clap hands. Surprise gestures work best. Be assertive!
- Be BIG and LOUD! Yell “Go away!” Never scream. A strong voice and assertive gestures send a clear message. Take action- Use *Aversion Conditioning or humane hazing techniques.
- Slowly back away. Maintain eye contact and remember never to run. Note if you saw evidence of food attractants left on the ground in the area of your encounter and report your observations to the appropriate agency (Animal Control, Bylaw, City Officials)
**Use hazing techniques such as shaking car keys, popping an umbrella, throwing an object in the direction of the coyote such as clumps of dirt, sticks, or blow a whistle. Review and download our Keeping Coyotes Away Pamphlet
Be prepared and aware of your surroundings when enjoying the outdoors. Be a good visitor “leave no trace”. Carry out leftover food, garbage, and dog feces.
Trail cam photograph showing a father with one of five pups during research of a local family of Eastern Coyotes